- The Simian Line & Health -

Prevalence of simian lines in general populations is usually 3-5%, but in medical populations the prevalence is typically much higher!





Medical problems & the Simian Line

The simian line became famous for it's significance in Down's syndrome, but in time hundreds of academic scientifc publications have linked simian lines with a 'rainbow' of syndromes, diseases and other medical problems.

However, many medical problems have been linked with the single palmar crease! WrongDiagnosis presents a list of 123 causes that appear to be linked with the simian line.

Quite a few syndromes have been linked with the simian line. The table below presents percentages for the occurence of the simian line in relatively common syndromes (including patients & controls from various countries):

Syndrome:

Country

Patients

Controls


Down syndrome [trisomy 21]


China


41.5 %


9.9 %

-- (occurence: 1 in 700 births)

Germany

31.5 %

1.5 %

Italy

53.3 %

1.0 %

Japan

48.0 %

9.8 %

North-America

M: 42.1 %
F: 31.6 %

M: 6.5 %
F: 4.5 %

Sweden

28.8 %

1.6 %



Edwards syndrome [trisomy 18]



(various countries)



77.2 %



5.5 %

-- (occurence: 1 in 6.000 live births)

(various countries)

75.5 %

-



Fragile X syndrome [Xq27]



Germany



13.3 %



3.0 %

-- (occurence: 1 in 5,000 births;
-- 1 in 250 females & 800 males are
-- carriers of Fragile X premutation)

Central Europe

M: 22.0 %
F: 14.3 %

M: 1.0 %
F: 1.0 %

Italy

25.0 %

4.2 %



Klinefelter syndrome [XXY]



(various countries)



M: 12.0 %



5.5 %

-- (occurence: 1 in 1.000 male births)

(various countries)

M: 11.8 %

-



Marfan syndrome



(various countries)



M: 22.3 %
F: 13.2 %



M: 9.7 %
F: 6.2 %

-- (occurence: 1 in 5.000 births)



• Turner syndrome [45, X0]



(various countries)



F: 27.7 %



5.5 %

-- (occurence: 1 in 2.000 female births)

(various countries)

F: 27.7 %

-

China

F: 70.0 %

9.0 %



NOTICE: Quite some of the data above is summarized in:

- Hautleistenfibel, A. Rodewald (1981)
- Dermatoglyphics in Medical Disorders, Schaumann & Alter (1976)


Other more rare syndromes that are linked with the simian line are e.g.:

• Aarskog-Scott syndrome;
cri-du-chat syndrome (cat-cry) [5p-] - 82.2 %;
• Cohen syndrome;
• Cornelia de Lange syndrome - 65.2 %;
• fetal alcohol syndrome;
Kabuki syndrome - 18 %;
• Noonan syndrome;
• Patau syndrome [trisomy 13] - 59.5 %;
• Poland syndrome;
Rubella syndrome;
• Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome - 39.0 %;
• Seckel syndrome;
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome - 78.4 %;
• Warkany syndrome [trisomy 8] - 37.5 %, 47.1 %;
Williams-Beuren syndrome;
• Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome - 52.3 %;
• Zellweger syndrome;
18p-, 18q- and 18r syndrome - 14.3 %, 44.8 %, 13.0 %.

Beyond these syndromes (which are usally caused by- or featured with genetic aberations), the simian line has also been related to various (non-)genetic diseases such as: diabetes mellitus (type 1 & 2), familial deafness, leprosy, and rheumatoid arthritis.

Also, the simian is more common in psychiatric populations such as seen in: schizophrenia (psychotic disorders) & ADHD.

But this doesn't implicate that the simian line can be associated with any diseases. For example, auto-immune diseases (which typically have a higher occurence in females than in males) are generally not associated with a higher occurence of the simian line (which is more common in males). Though the hand in diabetes mellitus type 1 could be the exception that confirms the rule!

Simian crease. Single transverse crease. Single palmar transverse crease.

Next section:
Psychology & behavior: the simian line!

Martijn van Mensvoort - Hand Research

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